Viking burials found in England

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Viking burials found in England
Burial map.jpg

Viking Age burials

Contents

Mp Hoards found in Britain.jpg

Found in Britain


Viking Age Compendium articles on Burials in Britain:
VA Burials in England.JPG
Burials found in England
Viking Age Compendium articles on Burials in Britain:
VA Burials in England.JPG
Burials found in England


This list of burials is currently a work in progress. More information will be added over time but it is hoped that even the meagre information supplied here will be of some use. Any list of Viking burials is going to be open to discussion. Many of these burials were discovered in the 18th and 19th centuries, long before modern archaeological practices came into use.

Our map of Viking Burials in Britain is derived from the following maps: [Bersu & Wilson 1966]:p.xii; [Wilson 1976]:p.394; [Graham-Campbell 1994]:p.p.134 & 153; [Graham-Campbell & Batey 1998]:p.115 & p.130; [Graham-Campbell 2001]:p.107; [Redknap 2000]:p.95; [Richards 2004]:p.191; [Redmond 2007]:p.70, p.77, p.87, p.93, p.107, p.117; [Harrison & Ó Floinn 2014]:p.225

We have recently discovered Angela Redmond's book, 'Viking Burial in the North of England' [Redmond 2007]. This gives a very good overview of of burials from the British Isles and is well worth acquiring if you are interested in this subject.

Status
The reliability of pagan graves varies. The 'Status' rating gives an indication of the current thinking relating to the finds reliability.
 Accepted   (A)
There is a good contemporary archaeological record of the find. Including a diagram of the grave and finds, etc.
 Possible   (P)
The contemporary archaeological record of the find is not as good but the grave goods would tend to indicate a pagan grave. The grave may be located in a mound or Church yard.
 Discredited   (D)
The argument in favour of this being a Viking grave has now been discredited although it has previously been published as such in the past. These are most probably just stray finds.

Index by County

Berkshire


Cambridgeshire


Cumbria


Derbyshire


Dorset


Hampshire


Essex


Lancashire


Lincolnshire


Norfolk


Northumberland


Nottinghamshire


Oxfordshire


Yorkshire


List by Find Date


England, Lincolnshire: Torksey


Part of a group of winter camp sites of the Great Heathen Army:
Torksey 872-873AD
Repton and Heath Wood, Ingleby 873-874AD
Status-  Accepted  
Type- Mass burial
Find date- Excavated in 2011
Bodies-
Dated to- AD 872-873
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods-



England, Dorset: Weymouth


Status-  Accepted  
Type- Mass burial
Find date- Excavated in 2009
Bodies- up to 54 decapitated males
Dated to- 970-1025AD
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods-
None



England, Cumbria: Cumwhitton


Major Reference Work
This article is primarily based on the work of:


Status-  Accepted  
Type- Burial
Find date- Excavated in 2004
Bodies- 4 men and 2 women
Dated to- AD 900-950
Publications-
Grave 1. Female
  • 2 oval brooches- type P51
  • 1 glass bead (near skull)
  • small knife and iron key (near waist)
  • iron-bound wooden box - containing:
  • lead spindle whorl, glass linen smoother, shears, antler comb, sewing needle, possible metal needle case
Grave 2. Female
  • belt: buckle with plate - tinned copper alloy, and strap end - copper alloy. (near waist). Traces of seal pelt found between the plates.
  • necklace: 6 glass beads, 1 chain-link - copper alloy. 2 other beads were also found any may have belonged to the necklace.
  • finger ring - oil-shale
  • arm ring - oil-shale
  • chain-link - copper alloy (near waist). Possibly part of a suspension strap for a drinking horn along with the other chain-link identified as also being part of the necklace (Paterson 2014, p.72)
  • drinking horn mount - copper alloy and fragments of horn.
  • sickle, shears, antler comb (found together)
Grave 3. Male
  • ringed pin
  • 6 glass beads, 1 amber bead, 2 silver finger rings, 1 silver suspension loop (near neck). May have been in a bag or a necklace
  • sword - type U
  • knife
  • folding knife (near waist)
  • whetstone (near waist)
  • 2 buckles and strap slides (near foot). For spurs
Grave 4. Male
  • belt: buckle with plate - copper alloy, and strap end - copper alloy
  • ringed pin
  • glass bead
  • sword - type L. remains of scabbard including traces of a small buckle
  • spearhead - type K, with part of wooden shaft - ash
  • axehead - type E, part of haft - boxwood. possibly butt hafted
  • shield boss - R564/R562, estimated 80-95cm shield diameter
  • possible strike-a-light
  • knife
Grave 5. Male
  • buckle with plate - copper alloy, and strap end - copper alloy
  • pair of iron prick spurs, with attached plates. Also with an associated buckle and strap guide.
  • a glass bead and an amber bead (near neck)
  • sword - type X, and scabbard - sheep lined, poplar or willow wood lathes, covered in leather
  • 2 strap ends - possibly part of a sword baldric or possibly a 'peace tie'.
  • spear - Type K
  • Seax with a silver inlaid horn handle and some traces of the leather sheath, along with copper-alloy binding strips
  • drinking horn rim mount (near head)
  • folding knife
  • flints, a silver coin, a glass disc, a knife, and a ringed pin (near left hip). possibly all in a pouch
  • iron chain
Grave 6. Male
  • buckle with plate - copper alloy
  • spearhead - type G but with a longer socket and no mid rib
  • knife with horn handle
from the plough soil
  • oval brooch - maybe belonging to grave 2
  • buckle - copper alloy - maybe belonging to grave 1
  • ringed pin - copper alloy - maybe belonging to grave 6, or even graves 1 or 2
  • large amber annular bead
  • 4 glass beads
  • sword - type L - maybe belonging to grave 6
  • spearhead - too damaged to type
  • spearhead - type I
  • spearhead - possibly a type G
  • possible seax
  • key - copper alloy
  • possible antler comb
  • possible folding knife
  • possible folding knife
  • knife blade
  • spur fragments
  • buckle - iron



England, South Yorkshire: Adwick-le-Street


Status- Accepted  
Type- Burial
Find date- Excavated in 2001
Bodies- Female skeleton
Dated to- C9th
Museum- Doncaster Museum
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Copper-alloy Bowl
  • Pair of non-identical oval brooches. Both Petersen type P37.
  • Hangerock. Textile remains preserved on the rears of the oval brooches and on the knife have been identified as z-spun tabby weave made from plant fibre (linen). In addition a number of thin linen strips (4mm wide) were found around the pins of the brooches. It appears that there was a pair of loops at the base of the brooch and a single loop at the top.
  • Iron key; iron knife



England, Derbyshire: Ingleby


Also known as 'Heath Wood, Ingleby'

Part of a group of winter camp sites of the Great Heathen Army:
Torksey 872-873AD
Repton and Heath Wood, Ingleby 873-874AD
Status-  Accepted  
Type- Cremations
Find date- Excavated 3 times, 1855; 1941-1949; 1998-2000AD
Bodies- Male warrior cremation burials; other cremation burials and mounds.
Dated to- 873-878AD
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Swords
  • buckles



England, Norfolk: Sedgeford


Status-  Possible  
Type- Churchyard Burial
Find date- 1997
Bodies- Woman and a horse found in Christian graveyard
Dated to- ?
Publications-
Grave goods-
None



England, Cumbria: Carlisle

Also known as 'Carlisle Cathedral'


Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find date- 1988
Bodies-
Dated to-
Museum-
Discussion- Mentioned by Paterson [Paterson 2014]:p.164 as a cemetery with a forthcoming report by Keevil.
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Buckles
  • Strap ends
  • small whetstone
  • Gold wire toggle [Paterson 2014]:p.160 pl.77



England, Derbyshire: Repton


Part of a group of winter camp sites of the Great Heathen Army:
Torksey 872-873AD
Repton and Heath Wood, Ingleby 873-874AD
Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find date- Excavated between 1974-1988AD
Bodies- Male warrior burial; Female burial; another single male burial and 2 double burials.
Dated to- 873-874AD
Publications-
Warrior Grave
  • Thors hammer
  • sword and scabbard
  • buckles
  • iron knives (one a folding knife)



England, Norfolk: Middle Harling


Status-  Accepted  
Type- Burial (no. 451)
Find date- 1982-83
Bodies- Male skeleton (cranial fragments lost on the London Underground)
Dated to- late 9th / early 10th [Margeson 1997]. Graham suggests that it may possibly date later based on the copper alloy buckle [Graham-Campbell 2001]
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Knife - (s.f.491)
  • Knife - (s.f.492)
  • Pivoting Knife - (s.f.492)
  • Pivoting Knife - (s.f.492)
  • Whetstone - (s.f.493)
  • Buckle (copper-alloy) with an iron plate - rectangular. found at the waist and from a belt. (s.f.495)
  • Nail cleaner / Ear scoop - copper alloy. found in the filling 11cm above the grave (s.f.554)
  • Iron buckle - D shaped. found by the left knee (s.f.555)
  • Spur - found by the right foot (s.f.556)



England, Essex: Waltham Abbey


Status-  Discredited  
Type-
Find date- 1985-1991
Bodies- Man
Dated to- late 10th / early 11th
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods
  • decorated copper alloy plate. Now identified as a stirrup mount.



England, North Yorkshire: Wensley


Also known as Wensley Churchyard

Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find date- 1967
Bodies- Male, found in a churchyard
Dated to- ?
Museum- British Museum
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword Petersen type L
  • Spearhead
  • Sickle blade, iron
  • Knife



England, Berkshire: Sonning


Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find date- 1966
Bodies- 2 Male skeletons
Dated to- ?
Museum-
Discussion- The grave goods for the two skeletons are listed together and it is now not possible to determine what items were originally associated with what skeleton.
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword
  • Knife
  • Bronze ringed pin, with a missing ring.
  • 6 arrow heads
  • unidentified iron strip?



England, Cambridgeshire: Wicken Fen


Status-  Possible  
Type-
Find date- ?
Bodies- ?
Dated to- ?
Museum-
Discussion- Considered very possible.
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Seax 'late Anglo-Saxon'
  • Knife, possibly saxon.



England, Norfolk: Gooderstone


Status-  Discredited  [Graham-Campbell 2001]  Possible  [Wilson 1976]
Type-
Find date- 1957
Bodies- ? found by ploughing
Dated to- ?
Museum-
Discussion- Graham-Campbell states that this find should be removed from all location maps of Viking graves as has already been done by Richards [Richards 2004].
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword fragment



England, Norfolk: Thetford


Status-  Accepted  
Type- Burials
Find date- 1953
Bodies- a number of burials, 2 with associated artefacts
Dated to- ?
Museum- Norwich Castle
Publications-
First Grave
Second Grave



England, Lancashire: Rampside


Status-  Possible  [Edwards 1992]
Type- Churchyard grave
Find date- 1909?
Bodies- None
Dated to- c.850-925 [Paterson 2014]:p.173
Museum- Municipal Museum, Barrow-in-Furness
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword - Petersen type M, single edged



England, Cumbria: Workington


West Seaton

Status-  Accepted  [Paterson 2014] [Edwards 2004]  Possible  [Edwards 1992]
Type- Churchyard Grave?
Find date- AD 1902-1903
Bodies- None
Dated to- ?
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword - Petersen type W or X possibly still in its scabbard.

St Michael's Church

Status- ?
Type- Churchyard Grave?
Find date- ?
Bodies-
Dated to-
Museum-
Discussion- Mentioned by Paterson [Paterson 2014]:p.164 as a cemetery with a forthcoming report by Zant.
Publications-
Grave goods
  • ?



England, Cumbria: Witherslack


Also known as Whitbarrow Scar, Witherslack

Status-  Possible  [Edwards 1992] [Cowan 1948]
Type- Unknown?
Find date- 1895-86?
Bodies- None
Dated to- ?
Museum- Kendal Museum
Publications-
Grave goods



England, Essex: Walthamstow


Also known as England, Hertfordshire: River Lea, Enfield.

Status-  Discredited  [Graham-Campbell 2001];  Possible  [Wilson 1976]
Type- River Find
Find date- AD 1900
Bodies- a skeleton (skull) was said to have been found under a 40' overturned ship
Dated to- ?
Museum-
Discussion- The boat is probably dated to the C16th or C17th. Also the sword and skull were not originally associated with the boat or even possibly with each other. Another sword was also found at Enfield. [GRAHAM-CAMPBELL 2001:p.113]
Publications-
Grave goods



England, Hampshire: Basingstoke


Grave 1899 West Ham

Status-  Discredited  
Type-
Find date- AD 1899
Bodies- a skeleton was found under the possible ship
Dated to- Dated to Viking Age (C9th ?) by Bjorn and Shetelig but previously dated to the Anglo-Saxon period.
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Spear
  • Lance heads
  • Knife
  • Bowl, bronze
  • Bowl, iron with handle
  • draughtsmen (stained green by contact with bronze)



England, Cumbria: Appleby-in-Westmorland


Also known as ' Ormside, Appleby-in-Westmorland '

Grave 1898 Ormside

Status-  Accepted  [Richards 2004] [Edwards 1992] [Wilson 1976]
Type- Grave
Find date- 1898
Bodies- a skeletonf
Dated to- c.850-925 [Paterson 2014]:p.173
Museum- Tullie House Museum
Publications-
Grave goods

Grave 1823 Ormside

Status-  Possible  [Richards 2004] [Wilson 1976]
Type- Grave
Find date- 1823
Bodies-
Dated to- ?
Museum- Yorkshire Museum
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Silver bowl [YM 1990.35] from a possible 2nd grave [RICHARDS 2004:p.202]



England, Nottinghamshire: Newark-on-Trent


Also known as Farndon Church

Status-  Possible  
Type-
Find date- AD 1892
Bodies- disturbed grave from a grave yard?
Dated to- C10th?
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods



England, Essex: Leigh-on-sea


Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find Date- AD 1890
Bodies- skeleton and horse
Dated to- AD 893 [Biddle & Blair 1987]:p.194
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword
  • 23+ (27+) coins.



England, Lancashire: Inskip


Status-  Possible  [Edwards 1992]
Type- Cremation?
Find date- AD 1889
Bodies-
Dated to-
Museum- Blackburn Museum / Lord Shuttleworth
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword - Petersen type L
  • dagger
  • pot



England, Oxfordshire: Oxford


Also known as Magdalen Bridge

Status-  Discredited  [Graham-Campbell 2001] Disputed [Blair & Crawford 1997]
Find Type- River Find (River Cherwell, Oxford)
Find date- AD 1884
Bodies- Men and horse skeletons found by dredging?
Dated to- C9th by Stirrup style
Museum- Ashmolean Museum [1886, 443-47]
Publications-
Grave goods 1884 - dredging in the river under Magdalen Bridge
  • Spearhead - [1884.514] dated AD 850-900 by Jan Petersen [Seaby 1950]:p.38
  • Shield boss - [1884.513] like the pagan Anglo-Saxon bosses dated to C5th-7th [Seaby 1950]:p.37
Grave goods 1886 - cutting back the island below Magdalen Bridge



England, Essex: Saffron Walden


Status-  Accepted  
Find date- AD 1876
Bodies- Female
Dated to- c.900
Museum- Saffron Walden
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Necklace of 2 silver pendants - 2 carnelian, 2 glass and 2 crystal beads.
  • Knife (LOST)



England, North Yorkshire: Bedale


Grave 1875 Camphill

Find date- AD 1875
Bodies- Male Warrior
Dated to- ?
Museum- British Museum
Publications-
Grave goods

Grave Female

Bjorn and Shetelig mistakenly attributed the oval brooches to Northallerton [Bjorn & Shetelig 1940]:p.15 [Speed, Greg & Walton Rogers 2004]:p.75

Find date- ?
Bodies- None - probable Female burial
Dated to- ?
Museum- National Museum of Scotland
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Oval Brooches (Pair)



England, North Yorkshire: Kildale


Status-  Accepted  
Type- Church burial
Find date- AD 1867
Bodies- 7 or 8 graves.
Dated to-
Museum-
Discussion-
Publications-
Grave goods - 1 (nave)
  • Axe
Grave goods - 2
  • Sword
  • Tweezers
  • Knife with silver inlay
  • Scales
Grave goods - 3
  • Sword
Grave goods - 4
  • Sword
Grave goods - 5
  • Sword



England, Norfolk: Santon Downham


Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find date- 1867
Bodies- based on the grave goods this might be a double interment, male and female.
Dated to- C10th
Museum-British Museum
Discussion- Richards has proposed that it may not be a double burial and that the brooches may have instead been an offering like the pair from Claughton Hall. [Richards 2004]:p.205
Publications-
Grave goods



England, Cumbria: Brigham


Status-  Possible  [Edwards 1992] [Wilson 1976] [Cowan 1948]
Type- Churchyard Burial
Find date- 1864-65
Bodies- None
Dated to-
Museum- Tullie House Museum
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Ring-headed pin



England, Northumberland: Bedlington


Also known as Cambois, Bedlington

Type-
Find date- 1859
Bodies- 1 woman (45 to 60) and 2 men (one in his 20s and the other 40s)[Alexander 1987]
Dated to-
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods



England, Nottinghamshire: Nottingham


Status-  Possible  
Type-
Find date- 1851
Bodies- Possibly burial of 2 Male warriors. 2 skulls and other human remains
Dated to- Graham-Campbell quotes Hall's proposed post AD 918 date based on the 2 swords.
Museum- British Museum Tr. 158
Discussion- Evison has confirmed the sword as a later type Y and not a type L as it appears in the picture [Graham-Campbell 2001]:p.106. Graham-Campbell notes that there is no evidence that the two swords were actually found with the spear [Graham-Campbell 2001]:p.106 and suggests that this explains the possible discrepancy of the sword's later C10th / C11th topological dating to the spears earlier C9th traditional dating. I would suggest that the cut off date for the Petersen type C-D spearhead is too early and that Ottonian manuscripts dating to the early C11th still show this type of spear in use. This would help support a C10th century date for the two graves.
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword of Petersen type X length 36", width (blade) 2.25", Gripe has traces of wood.
  • Sword pommel of Petersen type Y.
  • Spearhead of Petersen type C - D. Affixed with a brass pin



England, Oxfordshire: Hook Norton


Status- Accepted
Type-
Find date- AD 1848
Bodies- 2 skeletons, one from a mound and the other with a coin hoard.
Dated to- C9th
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Coin hoard c.875AD or a bit later.



England, Berkshire: Reading


Status-  Accepted  
Type-
Find date- June 1831.
Bodies- Male warrior burial with a horse skeleton
Dated to- ?
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods


England, Lancashire: Claughton Hall


Status-  Accepted  
Find date- 1822
Bodies- Male skeleton
Dated to- ?
Museum- Claughton Hall
Comments- The items were said to have been found in a wooden chest
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Oval Brooches (Pair), gilt copper-alloy (R. 652). These were found wrapped back to back and encased the 2 beads and a molar tooth.
  • Silver nielloed brooch (originally a Carolingian mount)
  • 2 Glass beads
  • Sword (LOST) - Petersen type X
  • Axe (LOST)
  • Spearhead (LOST)
  • Hammer (LOST)



England, Cumbria: Hesket-in-the-Forest


Status-  Accepted  [Paterson 2014] [Richards 2004] [Wilson 1976]
Type- Possible Cremation?
Find date- 1822
Bodies- None, cremation?
Dated to- c.900-925 [Paterson 2014]:p.172
Museum- Tullie House Museum
Discussion- The weapons were deliberately damaged.
Publications-
Grave goods



England, Cumbria: Eaglesfield


Status-  Accepted  [Richards 2004]:p.193 [Wilson 1976]:p.394  Possible   [Edwards 1992]
Type- Mound Burial [Richards 2004]:p.193
Find date- 1814
Bodies- Male skeleton
Dated to- ?
Museum- Black Gate Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne
Publications-
Grave goods
  • Sword
  • Axe or Spear (LOST). Oiginally described as a halbard 11" long. Cowan and Edwards both suggests that it might have been a spear? [Cowan 1948] [Edwards 1998]:p.19
  • Fibula? (LOST) - L:5" Ring-headed pin?



England, Lancashire: Heysham


Grave St. Peter's

Status-  Accepted  [Richards 2004]:p.202 [Wilson 1976]:p.394
Type- Churchyard Burial
Find date- excavated in 1800
Bodies- Male
Dated to- C10th
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods-
  • Spearhead (LOST) - unknown type
  • Hogback stone

Grave St Patrick 63

Status-  Accepted  [Richards 2004]:p.202 [Potter & Andrews 1994]
Type- Churchyard Burial
Find date- excavated in April 1977 & March/April 1978
Bodies- Female
Dated to- C10th
Museum-
Publications-
Grave goods-
  • Bone comb



England, Cumbria: Aspatria


1789 Excavation

Status-  Accepted  [Paterson 2014] [Edwards 1992] [Wilson 1976]
Type- Burial
Find date- excavated in 1789 [Edwards 1992]
Bodies- None, Male?
Dated to- late C9th to early C10th [Paterson 2014]:p.172-173
Museum-
Comments- The area was re-investigated in 1997.
Publications-
Grave goods-
  • Sword (LOST) - with a silver encrusted hilt
  • Spearhead (LOST) - with a decorated silver socket
  • Axe (LOST) - Petersen Type E? [Paterson 2014]:p.172-173
  • Shield (LOST) - pieces?
  • Buckle (LOST) - gold
  • Strap-end (LOST) - Carolingian
  • Horse bit (LOST) - iron
  • Spur (LOST)

1997 Excavation

Status-  Accepted  [Abramson 2000]
Type- Burial
Find date- excavated in 1789 [Edwards 1992]
Bodies- 2 fragments of a tibial bone, female?
Dated to-
Museum-
Comments- Probably from the same grave excavated in 1789
Publications-
Grave goods-
  • Ringed pin - copper-alloy
  • Buckle, buckle-plate & strap guide - iron
  • Folding knife -
  • Spur? -
  • Axe head - Upper part with wood still in the shaft hole. Possibly the missing part of the axe found in 1789.


England, Lancashire: Blackrod


Also known as Hasty Knoll, Blackrod, near Wigan

Status-  Possible  [Edwards 1992] [Cowan 1948]
Type- Burial? under a cairn of river stones
Find date- 1770
Bodies- None.
Dated to- ?
Museum- LOST
Comments-
Publications-
Grave goods-
  • Sword (LOST)


References

Bjorn, Anathon, and Shetelig, Haakon (1940) Viking Antiquities in England. Edited by Haakon Shetelig. (Available Online) Viking Antiquities in Great Britain and Ireland: Part 4 [Bjorn & Shetelig 1940] ^ 1 2 *
Cowan, J.D. (1948) 'Viking Burials in Cumbria'. pp.73-76. (Available online) Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society: Ser.2 Vol.48 [Cowan 1948] ^ 1 2 3 4 *
Edwards, B.J.N. (1998) Vikings in North West England. The Artifacts. [Edwards 1998] ^ *

Bersu, Gerhard and Wilson, David M. (1966) Three Viking Graves in the Isle of Man. The Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph Servies: No 1 [Bersu & Wilson 1966] ^ *
Graham-Campbell, James; Batey, Colleen; Clarke, Helen; Page, R.I. and Price, Neil S. (1994) Cultural Atlas of the Viking World. [Graham-Campbell 1994] ^ *
Graham-Campbell, James, and Batey, Colleen E. (1998) Vikings in Scotland, an archaeological survey. Edinburgh University Press. [Graham-Campbell & Batey 1998] ^ *
Graham-Campbell, James; Hall, Richard; Jesch, Judith and Parsons, David N. (eds.) (2001) Vikings and the Danelaw. Select Papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress. Viking Congress: 13 [Graham-Campbell 2001] ^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 *
Harrison, Stephen H. & Ó Floinn, Raghnall 2014 Viking Graves and Grave-Goods in Ireland. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. Medieval Dublin Excavations 1962-81: Ser.B Vol.11 [Harrison & Ó Floinn 2014] ^ *
Redknap, Mark (2000) Vikings in Wales. An Archaeological Quest. [Redknap 2000] ^ *
Redmond, Angela Z. (2007) Viking Burial in the North of England. A Study of Contact, Interaction and Reaction between Scandinavian Migrants with Resident Groups, and the effect of Immigration on Aspects of Cultural Continuity.. British Archaeological Reports: BAR 429 [Redmond 2007] ^ 1 2 *
Richards, Julian D. (2004) Vikings in England. [Richards 2004] ^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 *