Difference between revisions of "Tents & Work Shelters"

From The Viking Age Compendium
Jump to: navigation, search
m (From the Psychomachia)
m
 
(27 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Stars1|Category=Crafts}}
+
{{Stars2|Category=Furniture & Storage}}
 
+
{{Furniture}}
 
==Northern European Tents==
 
==Northern European Tents==
 
Also known as Anglo-Saxon, Saxon or Geteld tents.  
 
Also known as Anglo-Saxon, Saxon or Geteld tents.  
 
===From the Psalters===
 
===From the Psalters===
The Carolingian Utrech psalter has two surviving copies. Although they show the same scenes changes in tent fashion can be seen.  
+
The Carolingian Utrecht psalter has three surviving copies. These span almost 400 years and can show us how the same scenes can be reinterpreted.  
 
* 820-835AD Utrecht Psalter
 
* 820-835AD Utrecht Psalter
* 1025-1050AD & 1125-1150AD London, British Library, MS Harley, 603  
+
* 1025-1050AD & 1125-1150AD London, British Library, MS Harley, 603, Harley Psalter
* 1150AD Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.17.1
+
* 1150AD Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.17.1, Edwine Psalter
 +
* 1180-1200AD Paris, BNF MS lat. 8846, Anglo-Catalan Psalter
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 15r.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.15r
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 15r.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.15r
Line 14: Line 15:
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 71v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.71v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 71v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.71v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 85v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.85v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 85v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.85v
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 15r.jpg | 1000-1025AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.15r
+
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 15r.jpg | 1000-1025AD English <br> Harley Psalter f.15r
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 15rb.jpg | 1000-1025AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.15r
+
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 15rb.jpg | 1000-1025AD English <br> Harley Psalter f.15r
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 25r.jpg | 1000-1025AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.25r
+
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 25r.jpg | 1000-1025AD English <br> Harley Psalter f.25r
File:London, British Library, MS Harley, 603 fol.33r.jpg| 1125-1150AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.33r
+
File:London, British Library, MS Harley, 603 fol.33r.jpg| 1125-1150AD English <br> Harley Psalter f.33r
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.44v.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.44v
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.44v.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.44v
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.44vb.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.44v
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.44vb.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.44v
Line 23: Line 24:
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.227r.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.227r
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.227r.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.227r
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.268r.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.268r
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.268r.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.268r
 +
File:Tent Paris, BnF ms. lat. 8846 Anglo-Catalan Psalter 1180-1200AD f.44 a.jpg | 1180-1200AD English <br> Anglo-Catalan Psalter f.44
 +
File:Tent Paris, BnF ms. lat. 8846 Anglo-Catalan Psalter 1180-1200AD f.44 b.JPG | 1180-1200AD English <br> Anglo-Catalan Psalter f.44
 +
File:Tent Paris, BnF ms. lat. 8846 Anglo-Catalan Psalter 1180-1200AD A.jpg | 1180-1200AD English <br> Anglo-Catalan Psalter
 +
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
Line 33: Line 38:
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Tent Bern cod. 264 Psychomachia.JPG | 900AD Carolingian <br> Bern cod. 264  
 
File:Tent Bern cod. 264 Psychomachia.JPG | 900AD Carolingian <br> Bern cod. 264  
File:Tent Chrisi College MS23 fol3v.jpg | 1000AD Anglo-Saxon <br> Chrisi College MS23 f.3v
+
File:Tent Chrisi College MS23 fol3v.jpg | 1000AD English <br> Chrisi College MS23 f.3v
File:London, British Library, MS Cotton Cleopatra C VIII. fol.5v.jpg| 1000AD Anglo-Saxon <br> MS Cott. Cleo. C VIII f.5v
+
File:London, British Library, MS Cotton Cleopatra C VIII. fol.5v.jpg| 1000AD English <br> MS Cott. Cleo. C VIII f.5v
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
 
===From the Hexateuch===
 
===From the Hexateuch===
 
* London, B.L. Cotton Claudius B IV  
 
* London, B.L. Cotton Claudius B IV  
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 9v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.9v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 9v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.9v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 17v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.17v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 17v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.17v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 17vb.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.17v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 17vb.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.17v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 18r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.18r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 18r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.18r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.21v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.21v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 23r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.23r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 23r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.23r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 23v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.23v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 23v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.23v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 23vb.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.23v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 23vb.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.23v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 24r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.24r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 24r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.24r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 24rb.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.24r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 24rb.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.24r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 25r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.25r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 25r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.25r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 29v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.29v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 29v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.29v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 29vb.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.29v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 29vb.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.29v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 30r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.30r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 30r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.30r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 39v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.39v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 39v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.39v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 41r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.41r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 41r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.41r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 46v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.46v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 46v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.46v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 47r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.47r
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 47r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.47r
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 47v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.47v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 47v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.47v
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 51v.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.51v
+
File:Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 51v.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.51v
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
===From other Manuscripts===
 
===From other Manuscripts===
 
* 850-900AD Leiden, I Maccabees
 
* 850-900AD Leiden, I Maccabees
 +
* C10th Fulda Sacramentary
 
* 1025-1050AD [[Illuminated Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts 900-1066AD#T84|T84]] Vatican Biblioteca Apostolica, reg. lat. 12
 
* 1025-1050AD [[Illuminated Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts 900-1066AD#T84|T84]] Vatican Biblioteca Apostolica, reg. lat. 12
* 1155-1160AD New York, Pierpont Morgan, M 724  
+
* 1109-1111AD Dijon Bible of Stephen Harding
 +
* 1155-1160AD New York, Pierpont Morgan, M 724, Edwine Psalter prefatory cycle
 +
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:Tent Leiden I Maccabees.JPG | Leiden I Maccabees
+
File:Tent Leiden I Maccabees.JPG | 850-900AD Carolingian <br> Leiden I Maccabees
File:Tent Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, reg. lat. 12, fol 29r.jpg | Vat, Bib. Apos. lat.12 f.29r
+
File:Tent Fulda Sacramentary A.jpg | C10th Carolingian <br> Fulda Sacramentary
File:Tent Pierpont Morgan, M 724 1155-1160AD.jpg | Pierpont Morgan, M 724  
+
File:Tent Fulda Sacramentary B.jpg | C10th Carolingian <br> Fulda Sacramentary
</gallery>
+
File:Tent Fulda Sacramentary C.jpg | C10th Carolingian <br> Fulda Sacramentary
 +
File:Tent Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, reg. lat. 12, fol 29r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> Vat, Bib. Apos. lat.12 f.29r
 +
File:Tent Dijon Bible of Stephen Harding 1109-1111AD.jpg | 1109-1111AD <br> Dijon Bible
 +
File:Tent Pierpont Morgan, M 724 1155-1160AD.jpg | 1155-1160AD <br> English Pierpont Morgan, M 724  
  
 +
</gallery>
 +
<br>
 
==Bell Tents==
 
==Bell Tents==
 +
This is a cone shaped tent supported by a single central pole. It is interesting to note that all of the depictions from the Utrecht Psalter depict them with a cross at their apex. Possibly meaning that they were used for Ecclesiastical purposes.
 
===From the Psalters===
 
===From the Psalters===
* London, British Library, MS Harley, 603 fol.24v, 68r
+
* 820-835AD Utrecht Psalter
* Utrecht Psalter fol.24v
+
* 1025-1050AD & 1125-1150AD London, British Library, MS Harley, 603, Harley Psalter
 +
* 1150AD Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.17.1, Edwine Psalter
 +
* 1180-1200AD Paris, BNF MS lat. 8846, Anglo-Catalan Psalter
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 24v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.24v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 24v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.24v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 34v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.34v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 34v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.34v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 48v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.48v
 
File:Tent Utrecht Psalter fol 48v.jpg | 820-835AD Carolingian <br> Utrecht Psalter f.48v
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 24v.jpg | 1000-1025AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.24v
+
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 24v.jpg | 1000-1025AD English <br> Harley Psalter f.24v
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 68r.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.68r
+
File:Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 68r.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> Harley Psalter f.68r
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.73v.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.73v
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.73v.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.73v
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.105r.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.105r
 
File:Tent Edwine Psalter f.105r.JPG | 1150AD English <br> Edwine Psalter f.105r
Line 88: Line 105:
  
 
===From the Psychomachia===
 
===From the Psychomachia===
 +
The English copies of the Psychomachia do not depict bell tents.
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 +
File:Tent Paris lat. 3808.JPG | Carolingian <br> Paris lat. 3808
 
File:Tent Brussels Lat. 9987 Psychomachia.JPG | 850-900AD Carolingian <br> Brussels Lat. 9987
 
File:Tent Brussels Lat. 9987 Psychomachia.JPG | 850-900AD Carolingian <br> Brussels Lat. 9987
File:Tent Leiden BUR Q3 f.121v.JPG | Leiden BUR Q3 f.121v
+
File:Tent Paris lat 8085 56rb.jpg | Carolingian <br> Paris lat 8085
 +
File:Tent Leiden BUR Q3 f.121v.JPG | Carolingian <br> Leiden BUR Q3 f.121v
 
File:Tent Bern cod. 264 Psychomachia f.65.JPG | 900AD Carolingian <br> Bern cod. 264  
 
File:Tent Bern cod. 264 Psychomachia f.65.JPG | 900AD Carolingian <br> Bern cod. 264  
 
File:Tent Brussels ms. 10066-77  Psychomachia.JPG | 900-1000AD Carolingian <br> Brussels ms.10066-77   
 
File:Tent Brussels ms. 10066-77  Psychomachia.JPG | 900-1000AD Carolingian <br> Brussels ms.10066-77   
 +
File:Tent Valenciennes MS412 a.JPG| Carolingian <br> Valenciennes MS 412
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 +
<br>
 
==Late Roman army tents==
 
==Late Roman army tents==
These appear to be depictions of late Roman army tents.
+
These consist of two uprights and a simple cross beam. A simple sheet is suspended over this and the ends left open. Examples can be seen in these C6th manuscripts.
 +
* 493-508AD Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Cod. F. 205 Inf., Ambrosian Iliad
 +
* 500-550AD Vienna cod. theol. gr. 31, Vienna Genesis
 +
<gallery>
 +
Tent Ambrosian Iliad 493-508AD.jpg | 493-508AD Byzantine <br> Ambrosian Iliad
 +
File:Tent Vienna Genesis C6th.jpg | 500-550AD Syria <br> Ambrosian Iliad
 +
</gallery>
 +
 
 
===From the Psychomachia===
 
===From the Psychomachia===
This style of tent does not appear in the Anglo-Saxon copies of the Psychomachia.
+
In the Viking Age this style of tent can be seen depicted in the Psychomachia but not in the English versions.
 
* C9th Leiden, BUR Q3
 
* C9th Leiden, BUR Q3
 
* 850-900AD Brussels Lat. 9987
 
* 850-900AD Brussels Lat. 9987
 +
* Paris lat 8085
 
* Valenciennes MS 412
 
* Valenciennes MS 412
 +
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:Tent Leiden BUR Q3 f.142rb.JPG | Leiden BUR Q3 f.142r
+
File:Tent Leiden BUR Q3 f.142rb.JPG | C9th Carolingian <br> Leiden BUR Q3 f.142r
File:Tent Leiden BUR Q3 f.145r.JPG | Leiden BUR Q3 f.145r
+
File:Tent Leiden BUR Q3 f.145r.JPG | C9th Carolingian <br> Leiden BUR Q3 f.145r
File:Tent Brussels Lat. 9987 Psychomachia 850-900 b.JPG | Brussels Lat. 9987
+
File:Tent Brussels Lat. 9987 Psychomachia 850-900 b.JPG | 850-900 Carolingian <br> Brussels Lat. 9987
File:Tent Brussels Lat. 9987 Psychomachia 850-900 c.JPG | Brussels Lat. 9987
+
File:Tent Brussels Lat. 9987 Psychomachia 850-900 c.JPG | 850-900 Carolingian <br> Brussels Lat. 9987
File:Tent Valenciennes MS412 b.JPG| Valenciennes MS 412
+
File:Tent Paris lat 8085 66rB.JPG | Carolingian <br> Paris lat 8085
File:Tent Valenciennes MS412 c.JPG| Valenciennes MS 412
+
File:Tent Valenciennes MS412 b.JPG| Carolingian <br> Valenciennes MS 412
 +
File:Tent Valenciennes MS412 c.JPG| Carolingian <br> Valenciennes MS 412
 
  </gallery>
 
  </gallery>
  
 +
<br>
 
==Viking Tent==
 
==Viking Tent==
 
===Oseberg, Norway===
 
===Oseberg, Norway===
Two tents were found in the Oseberg ship burial.<br>
+
Two tents were found in the Oseberg ship burial. Apparently the original woodwork for the tents other than the carved dragon heads no longer survives. Although it is now impossible to say with any certainty which poles belonged to which tent I have attempted to make a preliminary guess in the image below. <br>
  
: '''The smaller tent'''<br>
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Tent_Oseberg_-_small_head.JPG | Oseberg Small tent
 
File:Tent_Oseberg_-_small_head.JPG | Oseberg Small tent
</gallery>
 
 
: '''The larger tent'''<br>
 
<gallery>
 
 
File:Tent_Oseberg_-_large_head.JPG | Oseberg Large tent
 
File:Tent_Oseberg_-_large_head.JPG | Oseberg Large tent
 +
File:Tent_Oseberg_Poles.jpg | Oseberg tent poles
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
===Gokstad, Norway===
 
===Gokstad, Norway===
 
:The parts of the tent are described by Nicolaysen [NICOLAYSEN 1882] thus:<br>
 
:The parts of the tent are described by Nicolaysen [NICOLAYSEN 1882] thus:<br>
:p.32 “When the ship lay in harbour, it was, at night time covered with a tilt (tjald) to which the recently names pillars and a ridge-pole belonged (tjaldass, tjaldstong). …… <br>
+
:p.33 “When the ship lay in harbour, it was, at night time covered with a tilt (tjald) to which the recently names pillars and a ridge-pole belonged (tjaldass, tjaldstong). Over this latter the cloth was stretched from both sides of the ship. Sometimes for ornament's sake the cloth was striped in various colours. When it is recorded in Egil's saga, concerning Kveldulf, that he bade his people go along the ship's sides and cut the tilt from it's fastenings (klofi) or when in another passage, the ripping up (spretta) of the tent is spoken of, to me it would seem more probable that the lowest edges of the cloth (tjaldskor) were fastened to the gunwale with ropes than, …… <br>:p.37-38 c “a bundle of woolen cloth of yellowish colour, though doubtless originally white, with stripes of red cloth sewn thereon (cfr. P. 33) the whole of which, presumably had been intended for the tent, an opinion corroborated by the fact that within the bundle there were found pieces of thin hemp-rope, in all probability, the fastenings of the tilt;” <br>
:p.37-38 c “a bundle of woolen cloth of yellowish colour, though doubtless originally white, with stripes of red cloth sewn thereon (cfr. P. 33) the whole of which, presumably had been intended for the tent, an opinion corroborated by the fact that within the bundle there were found pieces of thin hemp-rope, in all probability, the fastenings of the tilt;” <br>
+
 
:p.41 q “four long oaken boards of similar size and formed in the same manner, having art the one end animal heads carved and nearly alike one another, and intended to be viewed from both sides, of whose purpose I was for a long time in doubt, until at last it became obvious to me that theu had been placed at each end og the tilt, a conclusion to which I was led by observing the barge boards with horse heads which according to Otte, are found in houses of peasents in Lower Saxony and whose heads in some districts are turned outwards to prevent misfortune, while in others they are directed inwards to bring good luck to the house. It is sufficiently clear that each of the boards must have crossed the other, as represented, and that the ridgepole of the tilt with its ends was pivoted through the holes highest up. To me it also seems most likely …..”
 
:p.41 q “four long oaken boards of similar size and formed in the same manner, having art the one end animal heads carved and nearly alike one another, and intended to be viewed from both sides, of whose purpose I was for a long time in doubt, until at last it became obvious to me that theu had been placed at each end og the tilt, a conclusion to which I was led by observing the barge boards with horse heads which according to Otte, are found in houses of peasents in Lower Saxony and whose heads in some districts are turned outwards to prevent misfortune, while in others they are directed inwards to bring good luck to the house. It is sufficiently clear that each of the boards must have crossed the other, as represented, and that the ridgepole of the tilt with its ends was pivoted through the holes highest up. To me it also seems most likely …..”
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
Line 135: Line 163:
 
File:Gokstad_Tent_2.jpg | Gokstad
 
File:Gokstad_Tent_2.jpg | Gokstad
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
 +
<br>
  
 
==Work Shelters==
 
==Work Shelters==
Line 149: Line 179:
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 +
===Late Roman Work Shelters===
 +
*c.427AD Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334
 +
<gallery>
 +
Tent Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334 c.427AD a.JPG | Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334
 +
Tent Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334 c.427AD b.JPG | Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334
 +
Tent Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334 c.427AD c.JPG | Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334
 +
</gallery>
 +
 +
<br>
 
==Tent Pegs==
 
==Tent Pegs==
 
===Oseberg===
 
===Oseberg===
The Viking Ship Museum has some 'tent pegs' on display. [http://dougleen.com/ontheroad/2014/03/23/oslo-norway/ Dougleen.com] however puts forth an alternative theory in that they are rope tension devices.  
+
The Viking Ship Museum has some 'tent pegs' on display. [http://dougleen.com/ontheroad/2014/03/23/oslo-norway/ Dougleen.com] however puts forth an alternative theory in that they are rope tension devices. <br>
===Roman iron tent pegs===
+
<br>
 +
===Roman tent pegs===
 +
The following evidence from the Roman period has been included here for comparative evidence.
 +
====Wooden tent pegs====
 +
*Newstead, Oak, triangular section, 250-500mm long [BISHOP & COULSTON 2006:p.116]
 +
====Iron tent pegs====
 
We've included these as comparisons. Found in Castle Künzing Quintanis (Germany) they are dated to the 2nd/3rd century AD. The original photo can be found [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Tent-pegs.jpg here]. A possible argument for the continuation of this style of tent peg as suggested by [http://europa-reenactment.org/saxon_tent.php Europa Reenactment] can be put forward by the pegs illustrated in BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v.   
 
We've included these as comparisons. Found in Castle Künzing Quintanis (Germany) they are dated to the 2nd/3rd century AD. The original photo can be found [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Tent-pegs.jpg here]. A possible argument for the continuation of this style of tent peg as suggested by [http://europa-reenactment.org/saxon_tent.php Europa Reenactment] can be put forward by the pegs illustrated in BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v.   
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Roman tent pegs Castle Künzing Quintanis.jpg | 100-300AD Roman <br> Castle Künzing Quintanis
 
File:Roman tent pegs Castle Künzing Quintanis.jpg | 100-300AD Roman <br> Castle Künzing Quintanis
File: Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v pegs.jpg | 1025-1050AD Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.21v  
+
File: Tent BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v pegs.jpg | 1025-1050AD English <br> BL Cott Clau BIV f.21v  
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
===From Manuscripts===
+
==References==
<gallery>
+
{{Ref|Bishop & Coulston 2006}}
File: Tent Brussels ms. 10066-77 pegs.JPG | Carolingian <br> Brussels ms. 10066-77
+
{{Ref|British Museum Website}}
File: Tent BL Harley MS603 fol 25r pegs.jpg | Anglo-Saxon <br> BL Harley MS603 f.25r
+
{{Ref|Nicolaysen 1882}}
</gallery>
+
<HarvardReferences />

Latest revision as of 18:39, 19 December 2016


More Furniture & Storage pages

Completion Rating
This article's completion rating is 2 out of 5. Article structure and content is subject to change as data is still being collected.
Completion Rating
This article's completion rating is 2 out of 5. Article structure and content is subject to change as data is still being collected.
Viking Age Compendium articles on Furniture & Storage:
VA Tents.jpg
Tents & Work Shelters
Viking Age Compendium articles on Furniture & Storage:
VA Tents.jpg
Tents & Work Shelters

Northern European Tents

Also known as Anglo-Saxon, Saxon or Geteld tents.

From the Psalters

The Carolingian Utrecht psalter has three surviving copies. These span almost 400 years and can show us how the same scenes can be reinterpreted.

  • 820-835AD Utrecht Psalter
  • 1025-1050AD & 1125-1150AD London, British Library, MS Harley, 603, Harley Psalter
  • 1150AD Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.17.1, Edwine Psalter
  • 1180-1200AD Paris, BNF MS lat. 8846, Anglo-Catalan Psalter

From the Psychomachia

Their are 18 surviving illustrated copies of Prudentius's Psychomachia. Four of which hae been classified as Anglo-Saxon.

  • Late C10th T48 Cambridge Corp. Chri. MS23
  • Late C10th T49 London B.L. Cotton Cleo. C, VIII

Although sharing a common source the Psychomachia from Bern is from a differnt drawing group than the Anglo-Saxon examples.

  • 875 – 950AD Bern, Stadtbibliothek, Ms. 264

From the Hexateuch

  • London, B.L. Cotton Claudius B IV

From other Manuscripts

  • 850-900AD Leiden, I Maccabees
  • C10th Fulda Sacramentary
  • 1025-1050AD T84 Vatican Biblioteca Apostolica, reg. lat. 12
  • 1109-1111AD Dijon Bible of Stephen Harding
  • 1155-1160AD New York, Pierpont Morgan, M 724, Edwine Psalter prefatory cycle


Bell Tents

This is a cone shaped tent supported by a single central pole. It is interesting to note that all of the depictions from the Utrecht Psalter depict them with a cross at their apex. Possibly meaning that they were used for Ecclesiastical purposes.

From the Psalters

  • 820-835AD Utrecht Psalter
  • 1025-1050AD & 1125-1150AD London, British Library, MS Harley, 603, Harley Psalter
  • 1150AD Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.17.1, Edwine Psalter
  • 1180-1200AD Paris, BNF MS lat. 8846, Anglo-Catalan Psalter

From the Psychomachia

The English copies of the Psychomachia do not depict bell tents.


Late Roman army tents

These consist of two uprights and a simple cross beam. A simple sheet is suspended over this and the ends left open. Examples can be seen in these C6th manuscripts.

  • 493-508AD Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Cod. F. 205 Inf., Ambrosian Iliad
  • 500-550AD Vienna cod. theol. gr. 31, Vienna Genesis

From the Psychomachia

In the Viking Age this style of tent can be seen depicted in the Psychomachia but not in the English versions.

  • C9th Leiden, BUR Q3
  • 850-900AD Brussels Lat. 9987
  • Paris lat 8085
  • Valenciennes MS 412


Viking Tent

Oseberg, Norway

Two tents were found in the Oseberg ship burial. Apparently the original woodwork for the tents other than the carved dragon heads no longer survives. Although it is now impossible to say with any certainty which poles belonged to which tent I have attempted to make a preliminary guess in the image below.

Gokstad, Norway

The parts of the tent are described by Nicolaysen [NICOLAYSEN 1882] thus:
p.33 “When the ship lay in harbour, it was, at night time covered with a tilt (tjald) to which the recently names pillars and a ridge-pole belonged (tjaldass, tjaldstong). Over this latter the cloth was stretched from both sides of the ship. Sometimes for ornament's sake the cloth was striped in various colours. When it is recorded in Egil's saga, concerning Kveldulf, that he bade his people go along the ship's sides and cut the tilt from it's fastenings (klofi) or when in another passage, the ripping up (spretta) of the tent is spoken of, to me it would seem more probable that the lowest edges of the cloth (tjaldskor) were fastened to the gunwale with ropes than, ……
:p.37-38 c “a bundle of woolen cloth of yellowish colour, though doubtless originally white, with stripes of red cloth sewn thereon (cfr. P. 33) the whole of which, presumably had been intended for the tent, an opinion corroborated by the fact that within the bundle there were found pieces of thin hemp-rope, in all probability, the fastenings of the tilt;”
p.41 q “four long oaken boards of similar size and formed in the same manner, having art the one end animal heads carved and nearly alike one another, and intended to be viewed from both sides, of whose purpose I was for a long time in doubt, until at last it became obvious to me that theu had been placed at each end og the tilt, a conclusion to which I was led by observing the barge boards with horse heads which according to Otte, are found in houses of peasents in Lower Saxony and whose heads in some districts are turned outwards to prevent misfortune, while in others they are directed inwards to bring good luck to the house. It is sufficiently clear that each of the boards must have crossed the other, as represented, and that the ridgepole of the tilt with its ends was pivoted through the holes highest up. To me it also seems most likely …..”


Work Shelters

From the Psalters

  • Utrecht Psalter fol.5r, 84r
  • Lothair Crystal (British Museum)

Late Roman Work Shelters

  • c.427AD Paris BNF Ms. Nouv. acq. lat. 2334


Tent Pegs

Oseberg

The Viking Ship Museum has some 'tent pegs' on display. Dougleen.com however puts forth an alternative theory in that they are rope tension devices.

Roman tent pegs

The following evidence from the Roman period has been included here for comparative evidence.

Wooden tent pegs

Iron tent pegs

We've included these as comparisons. Found in Castle Künzing Quintanis (Germany) they are dated to the 2nd/3rd century AD. The original photo can be found here. A possible argument for the continuation of this style of tent peg as suggested by Europa Reenactment can be put forward by the pegs illustrated in BL Cotton Claudius B IV fol 21v.

References

Bishop, M. C., and Coulston, J.C.N. (2006) Roman Military Equipment. From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome. Second Edition. [BISHOP & COULSTON 2006] ^ *
British Museum Website http://www.britishmuseum.org [BRITISH MUSEUM WEBSITE] *
Nicolaysen, N (1882) The Viking Ship Discovered in Gokstad, Norway. [NICOLAYSEN 1882] ^ *